Laudon and Laudon, , contend that managers cannot ignore information systems because they play a crucial role in contemporary organization. He pointed out that the entire cash flow of most fortune five hundred companies is linked to information system. Therefore, this study provides the basis that application of information technology concepts, techniques, policies and implementation strategies to banking services will become a subject of fundamental importance and concerns to all banks and indeed a perquisite for local and global competitiveness.
Information technology affects how managers decide, how they plan and what product and services are offered in the banking industry. It has continued to change the way banks and their corporate relationship are organized worldwide and the variety of innovative contend that financial services providers should modify their traditional operating practices to remain, viable in the s and the decades that follow. Woherem , claimed that only banks that overhaul the whole of their payment and delivery systems and apply information technology to their operations are likely to survive and prosper in the new millennium.
In his statement, he advises banks to re-examine their service and delivery system in order to position them within the framework of the dictates of the dynamism of information technology. The banking industry in Nigeria has witnessed tremendous changes linked with the developments in information technology over the years. The quest for survival, global relevance, maintaince of existing market share and sustainable development has made This study therefore evaluates the response of Nigerian banks to this new trend and examines the extent to which they have adopted innovative technologies in their operators and the result effect.
While many of the large banks stuck to centralized system because of heavy investment in technology equipment, the smaller banks began to imbibe the distribution approach which was beginning to emerge and which was more affordable especially as it allows organizations with the flexibility of scalable infrastructure. Reports have it that in Nigeria, there are only one computer and four main telephone lines per thousand people.
Also, electricity supply is sporadic and inefficient. Most importantly, Nigeria has very low internet access with less than one internet service provider per thousand people. The cause for such low internet access is the ineffective implementation of information technology. The challenges being faced by Nigerian banks in their attempt to ensure a smooth exchange of electronic data and information are: i. The need to build a better infrastructure that will serve as backbone for communication within the banks.
The need to collaborate in sourcing for new technological equipment that will provide common standard. The need to get better at information technology system development and operation by bank management. The need to impress by improving the present telecommunications infrastructure. To combat these challenges, the following were proffered: i. There should be government and public awareness to attract long term investments in the telecommunication industry. Emphasis should be set on the importance of maintaining existing infrastructure and equipment Oyedokun and Oladejo,.
HR charge high costs for services that are least important for benefits and risk associated with electronic banking.
In my own study a lot of research work has to be done in order to combat the challenges of information technology faced by commercial banks and other financial institutions in Nigeria, there is need for banks and the government to educate the public in the use of online banking products, to invest more into information communication technology infrastructure and for the government to reduce tax of information communication technology gadgets.
Internet banking and online banking is not yet developed in Nigeria, Amaoko, Singh opined that technology has introduced new ways of delivering banking services and Hence banks have found themselves at the forefront of technology adoption for the past three decades. These changes and developments in the banking industry have impact on service quality, future of the banking activities, and consequently its continually competitive ability in the world markets since going along with technology is one of the most important factors of economic organizations success in general and banks in particular Nyangosi, Local Area Network LAN may also be seen as a basic indicator of the minimum infrastructure required to enablecompanies to conduct electronic banking at a substantial level.
Examples of the use of internal network and communication in banking operation include: Automated Tell Machine: This is a type of retail banking technology. It provides major roles by offering convenience, speedy and round the clock service. Wireless Communication: Wireless communications networks are networks that require no guided media like cables and fibre optics but unguided media.
They are called unguided because they need no physical device to link the nodes together but radiate or broadcast information in many directions. Basically wireless communications employ the use of microwaves, satellites, radio and infrared transmissions to transport packets of data from one location to another. It may be automated and it runs on a computer. Data processing can be said as the process of recording, analyzing, sorting, summarizing, disseminating and storing data.
Thesis: THE ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON COMMERCIAL BANKS IN NIG…
Teletex and View Data: Teletext and view data are new information systems utilizing the domestic television receiver for display purposes. These systems have been evolved over the last six or seven years and receivers are now becoming available for the public. It was recognized when the first proposals were made that it would be essential to produce decoders that could be designed into receivers with minimal additional cost and large-scale integrated circuits have enabled this to be achieved, Mother sole, Telecommunication: Telecommunication is the electronic movement of information from one location to another.
This involves setting up a computer network within the office intranet or outside the office extranet to facilitate electronic dissemination of information, teleconferencing and among stakeholders. Voicemails: It allowed users and subscribers to exchange voice messages; that are used to select and deliver voice information; and to provide transactions relating to individuals, organizations, products and services, using telephone. It is used more broadly to denote any system of conveying a stored telecommunications voice messages, including using an answering machine.
Computer Network: Computer network is a group of two or more computer systems linked together. It is also said as the interconnection of two or more computer systems using data communication system or devices. The interconnection of stand-alone of computers using networking media and devices. There are many types of computer networks, including: Wireless area networks: The computers are farther apart and are connected by telephone lines or radio waves.
Campus-area networks: The computers are within a limited geographic area, such as a campus or military base. Metropolitan-area networks: A data network designed for a town or city. Home-area networks: A network contained within a user's home that connects a person's digital devices. It is also a private network used by a company primarily for routing, storing and delivering electronic data interchange EDI messages.
PSU banks are a tough nut to crack, says Andrew Holland.
Value added networks operated by large companies for efficient supply chain management with their suppliers, industry consortiums and telecom providers. Tele-Conferencing and Video: It is a set of telecommunication technologies where two or more locations communicate by simultaneous two-way video and audio transmissions. It is also known as visual collaboration. Facsimile Transmission FAX : Fax is the telephonic transmission of scanned printed material both text and images, normally to a telephone number connected to a printer or other output device.
The original document is scanned with a fax machine or a telecopier, which processes the contents text or images as a single fixed graphic image, converting it into a bitmap, and then transmitting it through the telephone system Rouse, Margaret Therefore by moving from a paper-based exchange of business document to one that is electronic, businesses enjoy major benefits such as reduced cost, increased processing speed, reduced errors and improved relationships with business partners.
Electronic Fund Transfer: It enables bank to transfer funds from one bank to another within and outside the bank. You can use electronic fund transfer to: i. Have your paycheck deposited directly into your bank or credit union checking account. Withdraw money from your checking account from an ATM machine with a personal identification number PIN , at your convenience, day or night. Instruct your bank or credit union to automatically pay certain monthly bills from your account, such as your auto loan or your mortgage payment.
To purchase groceries, gasoline and other purchases at the point-of-sale, using a check card rather than cash. Internet Security: It is provided to existing and potential customers of a commercial bank to protect privacy and security of customer or clients while visiting and transacting business with the bank on the internet. The emerging electronic and wireless technologies Electronic Banking services include the following: Electronic Mail: is an electronic means of sending and receiving mails.
Its application is popular within a network environment or through the internet. Therefore with a network of systems, a note, letter, report, and chart can be sent from office to another within the company. Credit Card: is the payment system that involves no account debit at the end of each transaction. Electronic and Mobile Payment System: Electronic payment system that works in conjunction with electronic commerce, while Mobile payment system is used by mobile commerce. The increasing awareness of the importance of computer literacy has resulted in increasing the use of personal computers.
Internet Banking: is a form of banking transaction carried out on the internet. There must be internet access and transaction is through a personal computer.
Non-Regulatory Incentives and Bank Behavior: The Stock-market, Taxes and Social Capital
Online Banking: is a synonym to internet banking but predominantly used to reference banking automation as against manual operations. Their salient characteristics involve convergence and interaction of many strands of technological change, with social consequences far more profound and far more difficult to foresee. They fall into three basic categories or strings of technical changes: in materials, in biotechnology and in information Hallberg and Bond, Research has discovered many new, innovative materials.
Transport enjoys lighter materials for fuel efficiency; health care takes advantage of dynamic images and intelligent prosthetics; and the energy sector benefits from many new materials as well. The banking business is becoming highly information technology based due to its inter-sectoral link; as it appears to be reaping from most of the benefits of revolution in technology, as it is seen by its application to almost all areas of its activities Akinuli, Technology has broadened bankingand as a result of this it has changed the nature of banking in competitive environment in which they operate or domiciled.
A wide opening has therefore been experienced around the world for banks and they are currently taking due advantage of these innovations to provide improved customer services in the face of competition and faster services that enhance productivity Akinuli, ; Ovia, Technological advancement facilitates payments and creates convenient alternatives to cash and cheque for making transactions.
Such new practices have led to the development of a truly global, seamless and Internet enabled hour business of banking. Technological advance in payments are important due to the fact that it will be feasible to outsource quite a number of the banks role in the payments system. Also banks regulation can be more technologically dependent and better focused rather than focusing on conceptual ICT revolution both in terms of innovation rate, speedy operation, and cost per unit portraying reduction in average total and marginal costs has made a good number of banks embrace the use of ICT infrastructure in their operations Akinuli, However, both these factors have a significant and profound impact on banks performance and customer service deliver.
The relationship that revolves between ICT expenditures, banks performance delivery is conditional upon the extent of network effects. If the networks are low, ICT is likely to: i. Reduce payroll expenses. Increase market share. Increase revenue and profit. Furthermore, in a broader perspective, ICT, deregulation and globalization in the banking industry could reduce the income streams of banks and thus the strategic responses of the banks, particularly the trend towards internal cost cutting, mergers and accusations are likely to change the dynamics of the banking industry.
This chapter seeks to determine if banks have earned higher income and delivered a high quality service than in traditional way. The main issues that can prevent consumers positively include the convenience aspect of the service, ease of use and its compatibility with their lifestyle. In other words, information systems need to be designed within an adaptive framework. Review of accounting information system literature also indicate that most AIS studies have incorporated contingency factors such as organizational structure, business strategy, and environmental condition in their research model but have neglected the influence of IT on AIS design.
Similar to IT researches, these studies viewed IT from the technological perspective only but failed to incorporate other perspectives of IT sophistication such as informational, functional and managerial. Very few of such studies have been carried out in developing countries especially in the Middle East. The contingency theory suggests that an organization's structure is based on contextual factors such as environmental conditions, business strategy, organizational structure, production technology, and management style Ismail and King, In industries, the geographic distribution of work duty is Therefore for instance, some software firms have found out that they can actually overcome the tight local market for software engineers in sending projects to India or other nations of the world where the wages are reduced.
Furthermore, this type of arrangements can take advantage of the time differences so that critical projects can be worked on. Firms today can outsource their manufacturing to other nations of the world and rely mostly on telecommunications to keep marketing and distribution teams in close contact with the manufacturing company. Information technology can enable a finer division in terms oflabour among countries, which in turn affects the demand for various skills in each nation. Technology enables various types of work and employment to be decoupled with one another. Firms have more freedom to locate their economic activities, labour, capital, creating greater competition among regions in infrastructure, and other resource markets.
It also opens opportunity for regulatory arbitrage: firms can increasingly choose which tax authority and other regulations they want or intend to adopt. An infrastructure of computing and communication technology, providing hour access at low cost to almost any kind of price and product information desired by buyers, will reduce the informational barriers to efficient market operation. Thus, they have started looking at the level of service and professionalism of the banks before depositing their funds. Proximity to the bank is no longer the The banks have realized that the way they can provide quality service is through the use of modern technology.
Hence, there is a growing need for adoption of new technologies in the Nigerian banking operations. The new generation banks make use of technology to provide efficient, online and real-time services. This therefore means that their customers can, for the first time in the history of banking in the country will go to any part of the country where there is a branch of their bank and make withdrawals or conduct an increasing range of other banking business. Before the new era of banking in Nigeria, the banking industry was characterized by inefficiency and truly frustrating service.
But today, most banks in Nigeria compete mainly via the use of technology on the amount of time it takes to services their customers. Services in the new generation banks now take up to minutes to complete, as opposed to hours of queuing in an unfriendly and uncontrolling environments. As a result of this banking operation in Nigeria has become computer based delivery systems; the new generation banks have become very profitable.
They have introduced integrated banking systems, using WANs. Thus their customers do not need to carry cash for long distances. In the last decade, the force of information technology IT has transformed the business environment. We are in the midst of a paradigm shift from the industrial paradigm of wealth creation to the During this same time period, the field of accounting has undergone an extraordinary transformation relative to its use of Information Technology in commercial banking operation.
Information Technology has increased our ability to capture, store, analyze, and process tremendous amounts of data, increased our ability to change business processes, and has significantly impacted the control process. In , the IMA warned that accountants in banks who stay on the traditional accounting turf risk being overtaken by computer experts Seigel and Sorensen, According to Ahamadkaleem, ,opined that bankers in Pakistan perceive electronic banking as a tool for minimizing inconvenience, reducing transaction costs and saving time.
Similarly, they believe that electronic banking increases the chances of government access to public data, increases the chances of fraud and that there is lack of information security. Madueme , researched on evaluating banking productivity and ICT using Translogproduction function in Nigeria, the results showed that bank output such as loans and other assets increased significantly to charges in expenditure on Information communication technology. The study recommended on the need to increase investments in information technology in order to increase productivity of banks. Advancements in information technology IT have enabled companies to use computers to carry out activities that were previously performed manually.
Accounting systems that were previously performed manually can now be performed with the help of computers. Therefore, improvements in the information technology have facilitated the use of management banking procedures. Also advancement in technology has brought about many changes and competition among banks and non-bank financial institutions which raises concern as to why some people adopt one distributional channel and others do not.
New services are difficult to evaluate where quality of trustworthiness dominates Patricio, IT-based distribution channels reduce personal contact between the service providers and the customers, which inevitably leads to a complete transformation of traditional bank customers relationships Barnes and Horwlett, In September , Guaranty Trust Bank plc became a publicly quoted company and won the Nigerian Stock Exchange President's Merit award that same year and subsequently in the years , , , , , and In February , the Bank was granted a universal banking license and later appointed a Guaranty Trust Bank undertook its second share offering in and successfully raised over N11 billion from Nigerian Investors to expand its operations and favorably compete with other global financial institutions.
This development ensured the Bank was satisfactorily poised to meet the N25 billion minimum capital base for banks introduced by the Central Bank of Nigeria in , as part of the regulating body's efforts to sanitize and strengthen Nigerian banks. Post-consolidation, Guaranty Trust Bank plc made a strategic decision to actively pursue retail banking.
A major rebranding exercise followed in June , which saw the Bank emerge with improved service offerings, an aggressive expansion strategy and its vibrant orange identity. Guaranty Trust Bank Plc was incorporated as a limited liability company licensed to provide commercial and other banking services to the Nigerian public in and started operations in February , since then it has grown to become one of the most respected and service focused banks in Nigeria.
In September , Guaranty Trust Bank plc became a publicly quoted company and won the Nigerian Stock Exchange President's Merit award that same year and subsequently in year , , , , , and respectively. Due to innovation and creativity of Guaranty Trust Bank Plc, they offer varieties of product and services to their customers; this has led to the achievement of awards by the bank for their outstanding innovation in information technology in their banking operations. Methodology is therefore concerned with the study of the resarch methods in a research of this nature,it is necessary to define the research design,area of the study,population of the study,sample size and sample size determination instrument for data collection,validation of instrument,reliability of research instrument.
H1: Information technology device has helped bank staffs effectively in the performance of their duties. A research design is very useful as it helps the researcher to develop a mental image of the structure for gathering the data and the analysis that will follow. The research study set out to assess the impact of information technology on commercial banks in Nigeria and to provide vital information in order to extract the sincere perception of the bank customers and staffs in Nigeria with regards to the position and role of information technology in commercial banks in Nigeria.
The purpose of this research is a random sampling technique of a bank that has been selected, the population and sample size of this project is based on one bank in Nigeria, that is Guaranty Trust Bank Plc which will be adopted for the questionnaire both to the employer bankers and This research work will examine the impact of information technology in commercial banks in Nigeria.
The method employed to examine the impact of information technology on commercial banks in Nigeria shall be the survey method. Data collected from the questionnaire shall be presented using with the aid of manual and electronic application such as the Statistical Packages for Social Sciences SPSS , while the hypotheses would be tested using the T-test statistical method and linear regression method. The sample size used for this research work consists of one bank, which is Guaranty Trust Bank Plc.
This bank was selected based on its oriented technology driven state, profitability, large capital base and reliable network of branches both branch and e-branch in Lagos, Nigeria. A total of hundred questionnaires were issued to both customers and staffs of Guaranty Trust Bank Plc. Therefore, these variables are classified into two namely: The dependent and the independent variable.
Y is the dependent variable which has to do with the effect , while X is the independent variable which has to do with cause. In other words, X is the cause variable while Y is the effect variable.
Therefore, to relate operationalization to the research topic. Commercial bank is the cause, while impact of information technology is the effect of operationalization in this research. Here the sampling selection is based on the subjective choice of the researcher as to which elements best provide desired basis and probability of good outcome. The data shall be generated by means of a structured questionnaire instrument.
The questionnaire shall be divided into two sections; the first section shall collect the personal data of the respondents while the second section shall focus on the subject matter of the study. The questionnaire to be used shall be self-administered and a total of one hundred to bank staffs for the purpose of this study. The sampling shall be done randomly such that the respondents shall cut across various departments and levels.
This instrument was drafted by the researcher; howbeit the supervisor of this study reviewed and The questionnaire shall contain twenty 22 items divided into two sections. The first sections shall focus on questions on the personal information of the respondents while the second section shall be devoted to the questions that relate to the subject matter based on the research questions that were stated earlier. The questionnaire would be as simple as possible so that the respondents could supply the appropriate answer to each question.
It refers to the truthfulness of the instrument and population of study. It implies that it should measure the characteristics it is intended to measure. The validity test used in this research is content face validity. Content validity is the extent to which the instrument measures the overall appearance and subject matter in line with the set of objectives of the study. In other words, the items set or statements made should reflect the purpose of the envisaged problem of the research study objectives. In carrying out the test, expert opinion was obtained from my project Supervisor in evaluating the relevance of the items to the characteristics being measured.
A test is said to be reliable if it measures the same variable at different times to the same set of respondents and results which are consistently similar. The test retest method involves measuring the reliability of the test twice to the same individual sample at different times. Thus the two scores obtained from the test are gathered together and correlated so as to determine the relationship that exist between the first test score and the retest score.
How be it in ensuring that the validity of the research instrument is established, the content validity and construct validity were implemented such that the statement and questions were hypothetical in nature so that it measure exactly what it intends to measures. In establishing the reliability, the following was implemented: the questionnaire item were placed on a scale of SA strongly agree, A agree, N neutral, D disagree, SD strongly disagree.
A face-to-face approach was adopted by the researcher in disseminating the questionnaires. This approach was adopted in order to monitor the data collection and to ensure that data supplied or response are of high quality. It focuses on the statistical instruments used, since variables are involved in this research work, the data collected will be converted into normal or ordinal figures by the application of predetermined weighting on them. This is because data that are collected are presented in forms that would enable them to The method of presentation addresses how the data collected are disclosed to the public and presented to aid analysis The researcher presented the data obtained via the questionnaire with the use of descriptive statistics comprising the sample percentage and tables, and pie chart presentation for adequate understanding of the data.
The adoption of data presentation that will be used for this research work is the T-test method, because we want to know how information technology has been able to impact more on the services operation provided by commercial banks in Nigeria. The data collected were sorted out into different categories of rows and columns, displaying facts and figures. For proper analysis however, only the data in direct relation with the hypothesis formulated were considered. This package was used to aid the analysis of the collected data for the study. In other to analyze and interpret appropriately the responses from the respondent, the parametric and non-parametric tools were used.
It shall be tested using the t-test statistical method and linear regression. SPSS is an integrated system of computer programs specifically conceived and designed for the analysis of social and behavioral science research data and information. This chapter covers the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data collected from primary sources. The data here are the replies collated from questions laid out in the questionnaires distributed to the respondents.
In other to present the data analyze the data collated through questionnaires; all questions in the questionnaire were analyzed including the ones with close relationship with the research questions, objectives as well as hypothesis, through the Software Package for Social Science SPSS after which the results were interpreted. This was a good result as a result of follow up and the non-retrievable questionnaires were as a result of the negligence of bank staffs and customers to fill their received questionnaire.
Table 4. SC 40 T has helped bank staffs to work better in a team than before the introduction of I. T in this bank has since attracted more customers to the bank. T, this bank has become more profitable. Deviation Information technology and computer have really helped impacted banks positively.
Savings operation and money withdrawals from banks are time-consuming activities. Deviation The introduction of I.http://mpcpistachio.com/cache
Available Bachelor thesis topics
Usually, the known value is a population mean. Deviation Std. Error Mean Information technology and computer have really helped impacted banks operation positively. Also, the two tail significance level which is 0.
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Hence, the use of information technology has a significant effect on the operation of commercial banks in Nigeria. Error Mean I do not think information technology has impacted banks performance in any aspect. Decision: From the above analysis, the calculated value is above the tabulated value, therefore the null hypothesis H0 should be rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis H1 accepted.
Hence, information technology device has helped bank staffs effectively on the performance of their duties. Model Summary Error of the Estimate 1. Predictors: Constant , Information technology and computer have really helped impacted banks operation positively. Dependent Variable: Internet banking has reduced banking cost.
Interpretation of Results The results from the model summary table above revealed that the extent to which the variance in operation of commercial banks can be explained by the model that is The implication is that the use of information technology has a significant effect on the operation of commercial banks. B Std. Error Beta 1 Constant 1.
The coefficient table above shows the simple model that expresses the extent to which information technology affects the operation of commercial banks.
Decision The significance level is 0. In these cases, the students must be aware that we can only offer limited guidance and supervision. We have a list of topics that students can work on. Students can also suggest own topics, in coordination with the supervisor, who then also decides if the topic is accepted. After you are allocated to our chair, we contact all allocated thesis writers and try to match students to supervisors by areas of interest.
This typically works very well, but please note that we cannot guarantee that anyone gets a specific topic or supervisor. The exact topic is then decided in the dialogue between student and supervisor. If you are allocated to our chair, you are free to start writing your thesis any day during the semester. Nevertheless, you have to reply to our initial contact and state your envisaged starting date.
Note that as soon as the topic is fixed you have to register your thesis. We do not allow for an extended period of time where you can work on your topic without registration of the thesis. We prefer empirical thesis. While for a Bachelor thesis a pure literature review is acceptable in certain cases, a master thesis must contain an empirical part.
Shadow Banking Risk taking in the mutual funds, interconnectedness in the financial sector, money market short term debt funding.
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Upon request: Empirical Asset Pricing Return anomalies and factor models. On request:. Labor and Finance unions, implicit contracts Household Finance Nora Laurinaityte.